This evidence supports the idea that interneurons and pyramidal cells have different origins.In fact, interneurons migrate tangentially from the subpallium to the cortex, and cutting this migratory pathway completely eliminates mature interneurons from the cortex. Fishell’s lab discovered that the caudal and medial ganglionic eminences give rise to the cortical interneurons.More recently developed assays have eliminated the need to use radioisotopes.We offer many of these assays that provide significant advantages to the researcher.¹ Some of these products include 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (Brd U), a nucleoside analog that is detected during active DNA synthesis using immunohistochemistry.Instead, the two periods of masculinization are driven by the two naturally occurring elevations in gonadal hormones.To explore possible neural mechanisms of peripubertal organizational effects of gonadal hormones, cell birthdating experiments in male and female rats revealed sex differences in the addition of new cells, including both neurons and glia, to sexually dimorphic cell groups in the hypothalamus and medial amygdala.
In some cases, these agents may simply be toxic to the cell.We have also developed the Click-i T® Ed U Microplate Assay that employs the nucleoside analog Ed U (5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine) and a detection method that is not antibody-based, so it does not require DNA denaturation.The advantage of these incorporation assays is that they are direct measures of proliferation.Birthdating experiments show that different interneuron classes are born at different times, and that none of their birth dates are aligned with those of pyramidal cells.In vitro studies have established that differentiated neuronal populations from isolated precursor cells are exclusively excitatory or inhibitory, not a mixture.
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I will first review experiments that establish that testicular hormones, acting during puberty, organize neural circuits underlying male social behaviors.