Ink age dating
Precise boundaries for paleography are hard to define.For example, epigraphy, the study of inscriptions cut on immovable objects for permanent public inspection, is related to paleography.This collection of multiple stems, called ramets, all form one, single, genetic individual, usually termed a clone.Its current 80,000-year designation is based on a complex set of factors, including the history of its local environment, the evidence indicating that there are few if any naturally occurring new aspens in most of the western United States since a climate shift took place 10,000 years ago which eliminated favorable soil conditions for seedlings, the rate of growth (including the differences of rates in distinct climates when accounting for its local-climate history, the fact that males grow more slowly than females, and the fact that aspens grow more slowly at higher elevations—Pando is at 2,697 m, or 8,848 ft, above sea level), its size, and its genetic code in comparison to the mutations found among aspens born in the modern era.If its postulated age is correct, the climate into which Pando was born was markedly different from that of today, and it may have been as many as 10,000 years since Pando's last successful flowering.Additionally, the post glacial climatic conditions have made it very problematic for new seeds to sprout.
Other candidates for oldest or heaviest living organisms include the possibly larger fungal mats in Oregon, the ancient clonal Creosote bushes, and strands of the clonal marine plant Posidonia oceanica in the Mediterranean Sea.
Kay documented post-fire quaking aspen seedling establishment following 19 fires in Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks, respectively.
He found seedlings were concentrated in kettles and other topographic depressions, seeps, springs, lake margins, and burnt-out riparian zones.
According to an Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report: Clonal groups of P.
tremuloides in eastern North America are very common, but generally less than 0.1 ha in size, while in areas of Utah, groups as large as 80 ha have been observed (Kemperman and Barnes 1976).